TOYOHIKO KAGAWA AND HIS WORKS
FRIENDS OF JESUS
TOYOHIKO KAGAWA AND HIS WORKS
Author of “Life of Toyohiko Kagawa”
His works on social work……………………………………………………………３
To laborers and farmers for their freedom and happiness …………………5
Brotherhood movement through cooperation…………………………………７
World state and peace movement…………………………………………………９
Toyohiko Kagawa as a Christian evangelist……………………………………15
Outline of the career of Toyohiko Kagawa………………………………………17
Classified List of Books by Kagawa ………………………………………………20
Religious Bible study and religious education ^………………………………20
Social research and cooperatives………………–………………………………22
Fiction, poem, juveniles etc.………………………………………………………24
Translation work ………………………………… …………………………………26
Works published in foreign countries ………… ………………………………28
Works on Kagawa……………………………………… ……………………………28
HIS WORKS ON SOCIAL WORK
1909 While Dr. Kagawa was a student of Kobe Theological Seminary, he started working in Shinkawa slum of Fukiai district in Kobe city. This slum was known as the largest and most miserable in Japan. At that time he was recalling Toynbee’s works in London to his mind and put himself in a practice of that work. His main purpose was to spread the Gospel 0f Christ to the people of the slum, but it was also a small social settlement work. His work was gradually expanded to include the medical service, the placement service, the care of the aged, the day-laborer’s lodging service, the cheap eating house, and the like. Besides, it gave good opportunities of developing a good character to those students who offered their service to this work. In those days when the people identified the Japanese social works with the works with the works of charity, he was trying to make his social work unique by finding the ways of preventing poverty of the people. His famous novel titled Shisen o Koete(Crossing the death line) tells us in detail how he struggled with many difficulties confronted against him. The government of that time employed his proposals and ideas concerning the housing problem of the slum area, the problem of depopulation, the job placement and the like. His works have been succeeded by “Kobe Jesus Band” and they are now serving the church work, kinder garden, counseling work, lodging service and others in that area.
1923 The record earthquake occurred in 1923 gave a great deal of disasters in Tokyo and Osaka. As soon as he heard of this disaster, Kagawa came up to Tokyo from Kobe and provided a tent on the east side of the Sumida River where the damage was most serious. With the cooperation of the Tokyo City Government, the Japan Red Cross, YMCA, the Japanese Christian Association, and others, he took charge of distributing clothes, beds and foods to the sufferers as well as helping identify the missing, and engaging legal and construction advice. At the same time he encouraged the spiritual revival of the people by the Gospel of Christ. Ａ famous novelist, the late Mr. Roka Tokutomi, heard of Kagawa’s activities and praised his work saying “Your works during the past year were beyond human power. It must be a present-day miracle. I hadn’t have even a chance to see your work, but I read of your works in the eight different newspapers to which I subscribed. I was always anxious about your health and prayed to God because you worked too hard.”
1925 He visited the United States and many European countries and studied the situations of Christian evangelical works, social work, labor union movement, political party, etc. in those countries. As soon as he returned to Japan, he established the Shikanjima social settlement in the residential district of the workers in Osaka. Perhaps, he was intending to make this new project for the prevention of poverty of the workers rather than for their relief. When the governor of Tokyo observed his works and heard of his ideas, he offered him a position of the head of the social bureau and wished him to take in charge of the social work for the reconstruction of new Tokyo. But he did not accept this proposal and helped him as an adviser. With his help and advice, many settlement houses and work centers were built in various places and the children became able to play safely in the play yard. The fact that the social work both in Tokyo and Osaka were planned for the prevention of poverty determined the future direction and nature of the whole social work in Japan. Dr. Kagawa placed more emphasis in his social work on the prevention of poverty than on the relief aspect of it. Not only that, he intended to promote the labor union movement, the farmers’ movement, the cooperative movement, and the establishment of the socialist’ party in close connection with the prevention of poverty as well as engaging in the relief works. Since 1927 the militarism began to grow in Japan and his movement had fallen into difficulties day after day. Especially before and during the World War II, his free activities were interfered with under the pressure of the militaristic regime and his every action was under their inspection. Since the end of the War, the nature of the social work in Japan has changed very greatly. He was a shift from the private social work to the state or national one and a series of the new legislative measures had also been undertaken. One of the outstanding feature of the Japanese social work is that the programs for the prevention of leprosy have gradually born it front and now we can expect to exterminate it within thirty years. Although such a remarkable accomplishment was clue to the understanding and cooperation of the various groups of people throughout the country. Dr. Kagawa’s contribution should not be neglected. He organized M. T. L. with the help of his co-workers. His serial novel about the prevention of leprosy made its appearance in a women’ magazine of the first class and it awakened the interest of the people about leprosy.
TO LABORERS AND FARMERS FOR THEIR FREEDOM AND HAPPINESS
1918 When he returned to Japan from the United States where he studied theology for two years and eight months, the labor union movement with English tradition had just been started and the name Friendly Society (love for friends ass.), had begun to be heard among the people. He joined the Friendly Society willingly and had personal contacts and experiences with workers. As a result, he could increase the understanding of the needs, the problems, and the lives of the workers. On those days the right and dignity of the workers had not been recognized and both the eight hour working system and the right of collective bargaining had also been ignored. It was hard to make the capitalists acknowledge these right of the workers do well as to enhance the level of the worker’s culture. At the same time, the world of social thought was also in chaos, where gild socialism, anarchism, bolshevism etc., were competing with each other, forming the sub-groups of their own. Therefore, it was almost impossible to form an integrated organization and to keep a unity of the workers. However, Dr. Kagawa was the only leader who stood against the use of violent measures and respected the individuals’ right and dignity, accepting the parliamentary government system. In other works, he took the standpoint of personal idealism for his work. Because of this, he was often criticized very severely by some groups of the union leaders. But on the contrary, the workers in Kansai area were so strongly influenced by his ideals and methods that they became a faithful follower of his.
1921 The labor dispute at Kawasaki dockyard and Mitsubishi dockyard in Kobe was the biggest labor dispute in the history of Japan. More than 30,000 workers participated in it and it lasted about sixty days for the solution. It resulted in the defeat of the workers, but the actual methods of dispute they employed were worth recording with the capital letter in the history of Japan labor union movement.
In the fall of that year, Dr. Kagawa began to organize the Japanese farmer’ union with his co-workers. The farmers as in the case of the industrial workers were so devoid of their social, economic and political strength that they could not fight against the capitalists, the landlord. Their lives had severely been restricted by a high tenancy rate which made them unable to give the children an opportunity for education. The immediate concern and purpose of Kagawa’s movement was to reduce the high tenancy rate as well as to democratize the tenancy contract. But his ultimate purpose of the movement was to release the tenant lands from the hand of the landlord to the hand of the tenant. The tenancy contract had been improved year after year by their endeavor, but the problem of the land ownership was not likely to be solved in the near future. They had to wait until the end of the World War II. Fortunately after the World War II, the land reform program was put into effect through the government with the help and advice of the Occupation Forces, and finally farmers became able to cultivate their own land with their hand.
1923 As a result of the general awakening, the people began to recognize the importance of every person’s participation in the political affairs with the right of election, and the movement for universal suffrage came into the force. Dr. Kagawa took the leadership of it and made his best endeavor to persuade the general public to participate in the parliamentary politics and to establish the socialistic party. The fanatic believers of anarcho-syndicalism used radical actions and agitated the people, but the law of universal suffrage passed the parliament in 1925 against their will.
1924 Dr. Kagawa thought that universal suffrage was not an adequate measure, though necessary, for the farmer to obtain true freedom and happiness and that they must organize their own party, that is, the Socialistic party. Having this thought in mind he traveled around the United States and European countries, and studied the movement of the workers cooperative and the Labor party in England. He visited East London in England and saw Ruskin Labor University. He talked also with prime minister, MacDonald and Miss. Bondfield about the Labor party. In France he visited the office of the Worker Federation and studied Jean Leon Jaures (1859～1914) But in Japan the social movement had gradually inclined to communism. Simultaneously, the competing ultra-right party began to increase its power and many high officials had been associated by the fanatic followers of this party. The militaristic leaders went hand in hand with the ultra-right conservative party and finally declared war against Manchuria and China. He deplored this fact and thought that as an urgent need for us to have the social work, the labor union movement and the economic welfare program which is based on the ideal and spirit of Christianity in order to make Japan a truly peace loving country. With this ideal in mind, he developed the religious movement of the kingdom of God through the country. At the sometime, he gave a great deal of concern to the problems of the second and the third sons of the farmer, the problem of overpopulation and a bad crop and tried to find out the ways of solution of these problems. One of such concrete measures was the introduction of the tree crop agriculture which combines the crops, animals and tree crops, together.
1945 After the World War II was over, he organized the socialistic party with his co-workers and sent many his co-workers to the parliament.
BROTHERHOOD MOVEMENT THROUGH COOPERATION
The foundation of the cooperative movement is the spirit of brotherhood love. Everyone must possess a pride of independence, otherwise there is no true freedom. 1919 Dr. Kagawa believed that the consumers’ coop. must be such an organization which maintain in a good social order and mutual aid with the cooperation and understanding between the producer and the consumer. By, so doing we can avoid the commercial speculation and the exploitation of the capitalists. With this belief, he first organized consumers’ coop. In Osaka and then Kobe Consumers’ Coop, in 1920, Tokyo Student Consumers’’ Coop. in 1926, Koto Consumers’ Coop. in 1927, and Nakanogo Pawn-shop Credit Coop. The Nakanogo Pawn-shop Credit Coop. was established with the following purposes; to provide an easy service to the people in the slum area, those people can borrow goods with a low interest rate. Even if they cannot take out a pawn by the appointed day, they do not lose the right over a pawn.
In order to realize these purpose, the people in the slum area must manage this pawn-shop by themselves. This plan was a gospel to those people in slum and it had been utilized until today.
1930 He also made and endeavor to open the way fora a general public to access easily to the medical services, and organized Tokyo Medical Service Consumer’s Coop. by overcoming various difficulties and established a general hospital by that coop.
These coop. movement was supported, materially and spiritually, by many peoples and stimulated to establish of the coop, of the same sort throughout the country. His theory and practice about the coop. has been fully expressed in his novel titled, The land of Milk and Honey and it appeared as a serial novel in IE NO HIKARI. (The Home Light) which is the organ magazine of the Agricultural Cooperatives Federation in Japan and went into more than one million three hundred thousand circulations a month. He always emphasized that the coop should be used not only by particular classes of people, but also by every people of the country and furthermore it must be used between nations aid made a proposal for the establishment of the international cooperation organization. He often went abroad for the evangelical work, but he also used these opportunities for the propagation of the coop. movement to the people of the world. He gave a great deal of influence on Chinese Cooperatives Movement as well as on United States, British and Scandinavian Cooperative Movements. His book published in America under the title of Brotherhood Economics was widely used as a text book. It was also published in England. Ａ famous novelist Upton Sinclair, referred to Kagawa’s name and praised his contribution in his novel titled The Cooperative.
1945 After the end of World War II, he organized the Cooperative League of Japan and took the leaderships of it. At the same time, he was playing an important role as a member of Board the IE NO HIKARI Association for the further development of the coop. work in Japan.
Besides, he inspired to the cooperators to organize the cooperative life and fire insurance organization to protect the people from the violence of private insurance companies. And there are now the National Federation of Agricultural Insurance Cooperatives and the National Federation of Laborers’ Insurance Cooperatives having enormous members engaged.
WORLD STATE AND PEACE MOVEMENT
1920 The first thoughts about the peace of mankind came to Toyohiko Kagawa’s mind when he began to read the Bible. This was still a great adventure for him, to read the Bible, when the whole nation was still tightly bound by Buddhist culture and the old traditional ways of life, at the beginning of the century. This was especially true in Kagawa’s case, because he had lost parents, and was living with his uncle. But by this time he had already made up his mind to live by the Bible. And he had a sense of calling to become an evangelist. He knew that his life work must be to show his people God and his love as revealed in the Bible.
1905 During the Russia-Japanese war, two books by Tolstoy, My Religion, and My Confession, were translated into Japanese and both became bestseller. Dr. Kagawa read these books and was greatly influenced by them, by Tolstoy’s ideas about peace, and the adherence of violence.
Near the time of his graduation from middle school, he was a member of a group of students being given military training. As guns were put into their hands, suddenly Kagawa cried out, “I hate to do this! I hate even to imitate the killing of others” The military officer got angry, struck Kagawa’s face and kicked him. He fell down with his face smeared with blood. Thus Kagawa’s baptism was a Pacifist.
1908 After graduation from Tokushima Middle School, Kagawa entered the Meiji Gakuin Theological Department. In the summer of 1906 he wrote an article, titled World Peace, which appeared in the Tokushima Mainichi (newspaper). In the article he quoted Kant’s’ idea about peace, MARX’s opinion, Carlyle, Ruskin, N. Tolstoy and those of others. He expressed his ideas about the true way of mankind as being one of peace and emphasized the adherence of violence. He predicted the trend of society as being away from imperialism toward socialism and also referred to the peace of the world. According to his thought, peace, and the Christian faith, were not to be distinguished from one another, but one and the same thing.
At that time, people began to understand him as a non-resistant because he was a defender of peace. Since then he has published articles on peace as follows
1920 MILITSRISM, in HUMAN SUFFERSG AND HUMAN ARCHITECTURE
1922 THE PHILOSOPHY OF WAR, in PHILOSOPHYOF THE STRUGGLE
1924 LOVE AND VIOLENCE in LOVE, THE LAW OF LIFE
1926 UNTIL THE ARMAMENTS ARE WITHDRAWN
1926 JAPAN, A LOVER OF PEACE, in COLLECTION OF LECTURE BY
1936 CAN WE PREVENT WAR
1937 WORLD PEACE AND GOD CONSCIOUSNESS in BOOK OF LIFE
1940 WORLD PEACE AND THE INTERNATIONAL COOPORATIVES
MOVEMENT, in THE PRINCIPLES AND PROGRESS OF COOPORATIVES
1921 Dr. Kagawa organized IESU NO TOMO KAI(FRIENDS OF JESUS) and set up the five principles of the society, one of which is to work for WORLD PEACE. Every member of the group is required to abide by these principles, and thus to work for peace. And they have actually lived accordingly.
1925 While traveling in Europe, Dr. Kagawa signed, along with Tagore, Gandhi, Einstein and Roman Rolland in London, and presented to the League of Nations, a written oath for the abolition of conscription. When the military leaders of Japan heard of this, they began to watch over Kagawa’s actions.
1938 More and more, Kagawa’s utterances and actions were under surveillance by the military. In 1938, in a novel titled The Promised Land, he wrote: “It goes where there was neither human action which sought the truth of the universe. Nor was there any enthusiastic attitude of man to lead mankind to mutual love and help.” The sentence was considered illegal and omitted from the novel.
1940 August, Kagawa was arrested by the military police, because of his antiwar speeches, and kept in prison for eighteen days. His monthly magazine, Kumo no Hashira, (Pillar of Cloud), which had been published since 1922, was suppressed. The opening sentences of the last issue of that magazine, written by under the title, What do We Lean from Jeremiah’s Lamentations, closed with the following paragraph?
“Put your mouth in dust. We need to understand the thoughts and feeling of poet Jeremiah in these lamentations. If we can, then the conviction comes naturally within us, that God will never forsake us. The ideal of the world is the kingdom of God on earth. This is the world where there is no evil, but love, humility, wisdom, art and justice governs everywhere. We must not forget this ultimate truth. Those who forget it will be defeated and those who believe in it will win. We must be patient under humiliation, if it is for the sake of the truth to save the world from destruction. We must also be courageous enough, if we are true defenders of the truth, even to wipe away the put from the sores of a leper. Therefore we say, “let him put his mouth in the dust; let him give his cheek to the smiler, let him be covered with insults. Here may yet be hope.”
But these sentences were inspected and the last issue of the magazine could not be published.
1941 In April, Kagawa went to the United States on a speaking trip. He gave more than 300 speeches, in the effort of maintaining peace between the two countries. He gave his every energy spirit for the prevention of war.
In the evening of September 5, at the house of Mr. Arima in a suburb of Tokyo, Dr. Kagawa had an interview of more than three hours with the late Prime Minister, Prince Konoye, as to measures for the prevention of war.
And later, when the general situation inclined almost to a final decision as to a declaration of war against America, Dr. Kagawa acted on behalf of the Prime Minister, Prince Konoye, in sending a telegram to Dr. E. Stanley Jones and to President Roosevelt, to inform them that Prince Konoye wished to have some special negotiation. From Dr. E. Stanley Jones the return telegram said: “The coming week will be the critical period. We decided to have a prayer meeting (continuously) in Washington. I would urge you to have a similar continuous prayer meeting in Tokyo. So Dr. Kagawa and his friends prayed to God day and night, for a week.
But, alas！ The news which came after that was the very opposite of their prayer, the news of Pearl Harbor.
1941 On the 27th of May, his preaching at an evangelistic meeting in Kobe was considered as being anti-war, and socialistic, and he was examined at the police office in Kobe. Again in November, for nine days, from November 3 onward, Dr. Kagawa was examined by the military police office in Tokyo, under suspicion for his anti-war actions. At that time he was forced to withdraw his membership from the International Anti-war Federation and from the Yuwakai (Fellowship of Reconciliation). Even his religious activities received sever restrictions.
1945 At last the war was over. On the Sunday morning of August 19，1945, he stood in the pulpit of Matsuzawa church and preached on the sin of war, and emphasized the necessity of constructing World State. His articles, under the title of To General Macarthur made its appearance in the Yomiuri Houchi, on August 30. In it he described the characteristics of the Japanese people and their future contributions to world culture and peace. As a concrete means to this end, he suggested the establishment of an International Cooperative Association, and of World State.
On the 27th of September in 1945, Dr. Kagawa organized the International Peace Association, based on the following principles:
- We shall try to contribute to world peace according to the spirit of the new constitution.
- We look forward to permanently avoiding any aggressive war, as well as the reduction of armaments of every nation.
- We stand against any (economic) monopolization and exploitation, and aim to promote international peace through the spirit of cooperation.
- We seek the mutual love and mutual aid of mankind through all human actions in the fields of religion, society, politics, economics, education, etc.
1947 Dr. Kagawa translated the Draft of a World Constitution, set up by the former President Robert Hutchins and others at the University of Chicago.
1949 Dr. Kagawa received an invitation from both the World Federation Conference and the MRA, but his application for a visa was not accepted by G. H. Q.
In December, the Japanese Parliamentary Committee for World Federation was organized by Dr. Kagawa.
1951 November. The first Asian Congress on World Federation was held in Hiroshima, for four days, beginning November 3. About 350 delegates attended, from India, Indonesia, Malaya, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Philippines, China, Formosa, Korea, Okinawa, Germany, England and America. Participants in this Congress included Lord Boyd-Orr, Chairman of the World Federation Movement from England, Judge Ｒ. B. Peal, from India, who had been judge of the Far East military court; T. Abdul Rahman, the Prime Minister of the Malaya Republic, S. Sonsai, Speaker of the Parliament of Cambodia, I.P. Noel, Member of the House of Representatives in Indonesia.
These representative people, with the others at the Congress, sponsored the following statement:
“Human beings are now suffering from the disastrous effects of atomic war. We are contemplating its inhuman aspects, and feel deeply the need to find ways through which to prevent the breaking out of any World War III which is now being threatened by existing international tensions.”
This Asian Conference on World Federation re-affirms out solemn decision (Eng. to exterminate war from the whole earth, under the atmosphere of the text will historic significance of its being held in Hiroshima, where the first be found atomic bomb was dropped. In order to strengthen the spirit of brotherly love of all mankind, which is the foundation of world federation, we determine on the following resolutions, with the unanimous accord of the conference and declare them to the world.
- To ban the production and use of any atomic weapon.
- To reduce armaments are completely as possible, making their complete abolition our future ideal.
- To abolish racial discrimination and realize fundamental human rights.
- To exclude religious bias, and bring about cooperative action between world religions.
- To release war criminals and prisoners as early as possible.
- To look forward to the development are use of the world’s resources, for the solution of the problem of over-population.
As a means to the realization of these principles, and aims, we aim to promote the World Federation Movement according to Mahatma Gandhi’s Holding to Truth. 1954 March, the President of the World Movement for World Federation and its Chairman Emeritus, Lord Boyd Orr, asked Dr. Kagawa to become the vice-President of this movement, and he accepted.
From May 2, 1954, there was held a conference of Non-member Countries of The United Nations, which discussed the following three points, under the main heading of organization for world peace:
- Why do many countries are not admitted to be members of the United Nations.
- Why some countries do not want to become members of the United Nation.
- What is the world･wide peace organization.
Dr. Kagawa presided over this Conference.
November 1 to 5, 1954, the Second Asian Conference on World Federation was held in Tokyo. Delegates came from India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, China, Formosa, England, France, America, Switzerland, Israel, and the Netherlands.
After the close of the Tokyo Conference, a number of special meetings was also held in Nagasaki, Hiroshima, Kameoka and elsewhere. At the same time, with the Conference for World Federation, there was held in Tokyo the second Asian Cooperative Conference. Dr. Kagawa served as chairman of the two conferences｡
1956 0n the 26th of November, a Conference for the Renunciation or War was held in Tokyo. Dr. Kagawa emphasized the importance of this conference by saying:
“The Japanese people declared a permanent renunciation of war, in article nine of the new constitution. This was a great event in world history. We must not only observe this Article at all costs, but also persuade the world’s peoples to follow this principle.
With a drastic reformation of the political, economic and social structure of our country, we must do our best to make the live of the Japanese people stable (stabilization of livelihood).
At the same time, we must hold to our neutral position in the international tensions, making an endeavor to mediate the conflicts between countries.”
In December, his article titled Appeal to President Rhee was published in the English Mainichi. In this he urged the earliest re-opening of diplomatic relationships between Japan and Korea, which had been ruptured since the end of the World War II. He received a letter, answering this appeal, from President Rhee. He visited the Korean Minister to Japan, Mr. Kim and talked with him three times about this problem. He had also a talk with Prime Minister Hatoyama and with Mr. Taketora Ogata to improve Japan-Korean relationships.
1957 The Third Asian Congress on World Federation was held in Kyoto from October 17 t0 21, discussing the following three topics:
- Coalition and cooperation between Asia and African countries.
- Banning atomic weapons and the abolition of armaments｡
- Strengthening the United Nations and the World Federation Movements.
Representatives from India, Borneo, Singapore, England, America, Germany, as well as 631 Japanese representatives participated in that Congress. At this time, more than 200 messages were sent by the leaders of this A. A. group, as well as colleagues of the world federation. The Congress closed with great success and made the Kyoto Declaration:
The unceasing development of scientific knowledge has at length made sputnik while our spiritual development remains at the level of the 19th century. This disparity between the two must result in tragedy for mankind. The ban on atomic weapons in the prayer of all mankind. The voices for permanent peace fill the air all over the globe. But the big countries do not cease to seek their own “security” through the power of arms and they are still producing and experimenting with atomic weapons which threaten the lives of all men. What an inhuman deed this is！
The United Nations cannot do anything about this because of the pressure from these countries, and its function seems to have arrived at its limit. Therefore, we need to revise The United Nations Charter as soon as possible, to strengthen its power in order to establish a new world order.
By our conscience and love, which are the basis of our world society, to promote the mutual coalition and cooperation with an expectation of the ban of all atomic weapons and the abolition of arms, and make our best endeavor for the renunciation of war and the establishment of world peace.
1958 0n the 14th of August, the Christian International Conference for World Peace, was held at Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo. Facing the alternative of either peace, or the destruction of this world, the Christians of the world gathered in one place together, for joint prayer and conference and confession of sin of failing to achieve world peace hitherto, and assured one another, that “Christ is always our hope and lord for peace.” Participants from abroad included : two from Argentina, three from Australia, sixteen from Canada, one from Congo, four from England, and one from France, five from Germany, one from Ghana, one from Greece, ten from India, one from Iran, one from Kenya, two from the Philippines, one from Thailand, forty-one from America, totaling ninety-five. Dr. Kagawa presided, and said we would like to have this kind of Christian International Conference every year.
1959 In December, from the bed of his illness, having heard of the news of the unfortunate situation of the civil war taken place in Indonesia, Dr. Kagawa sent an appeal to the authorities of Indonesia that they should stop war and have peace talk in order to avoid further disaster. And he also asked cooperation to many authorities of nations of the world.
TOYOHIKO KAGAWA AS A CHRISTIAN EVANGELIST
A broad range of his activities seems to obscure what is the central characteristics of his. Being a Christian evangelist is the beginning and the end of his life. All his prayers, struggles, and hopes depend upon this faith. Let us give a glance at his main evangelist works;
1925 Evangelical movement for one million converts
1929 The Kingdom of God Movement
1933 Cooperative evangelism
1946 Christian movement for the reconstruction of new Japan
Evangelical works abroad.
1924 Nov. 25 – July 22 United States and several countries in Europe
1927 Aug. 16- China
1930 July 19- China
1931 Jan. 13- Feb. 13 China
1931 July 10- Nov. 12 Canada & Siberia (World YMCA Conf.)
1934 Feb.- March 14 Philippines
1935 Feb. 16- July 30 Australia, New Zealand
1935 Dec. 5- America
1936 July 8- Norway (World S. S. Fed. Conf.)
1938 Nov. 15 – March 18 India (World Evangelical Conf.)
1941 Apr. 5 – Aug. 16 America (as a delegate for peace)
1944 Oct. 20- Feb. 5 China
1949 Dec. 22 England, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway
1950 July 15 – Dec. 28 America
1953 Jan. 25 – June 24 Brazil
1954 July 1 – Oct. 25 America, Canada (Second World Christian Conf.）
1957 Jan. 23- Feb. 22 Thailand
1958 Jan. 22- Malay (East-south Asia Conf. & International Cooperative Conf.)
In spite of his cold, he went to Shikoku area for evangelical work on the first of January, 1959 by saying “It is a glory for an evangelist to die on the way of his evangelism”. He did not follow his co-workers’ advise to postpone the departure. But he could not fight against illness, and he could not even stand because of a severe pain and exhaustion when his steam ship arrived at Takamatsu pier in Shikoku. Immediately he was brought to the Saint Luke Hospital in Takamatsu and staved in bed for nearly three months and returned to his home in Tokyo on the 24th of March.
April 23, Dr. Kagawa died at his home in Tokyo.
OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF TOYOHIKO KAGAWA
ACADEMIC RECORD AND HONORARY DEGREES
1905 March, Graduated from Tokushima Middle School
1907 March, Graduated from Meiji Gakuin College, Tokyo
1912 March, Graduated from Kobe Theological Seminary, Kobe
1916 June, B. D. from Princeton Theological Seminary
1929 April, D. D. from Divinity Hall, Pine Hill, Nova Scotia, Canada
1950 September, D. L. Keuka College, New York State, U. S. A.
1906 August, Published an article on “World Peace” Tokushima Daily Newspaper
1909 December, Moved into Kobe Shinkawa Slum for mission and social settlement work, and remained there for eleven years in all
1918 April, Obtained a minister of the Japanese Presbyterian Church
1919 April, President, West Japan Branch, Japan Federation of Labor
August, Established Kyoekisha Consumers’ Cooperative in Osaka
October, Established Kobe Consumers’ Cooperative in Kobe
October, Published novel “Shisen wo Koete”, literal translation,
”Crossing the Death Line” as in first edition in the U.S.A., later changed to
“Before the Dawn”
1921 June, Leader Kobe labor conflict
October, Organized Japan National Farmers Union
October, Organized Friend of Jesus
1923 September, Organized relief work after the Great Earthquake in Tokyo
1924 April, Made a member, Imperial Cabinet Economic Commission
May, Member, Central Employment Commission
November, To U.S.A. by invitation of the Pan Pacific Student Convention and
to see several European countries
1925 March, Member, Advisory Committee, Imperial Family Gift Fund for Poor Relief
August, Organized One Million Souls for Christ Movement
October, Established Shikanjima Social Settlement, Osaka
1927 February, Established Japan Farmers Gospel School,
but first session held in Hyogo
1927 April, Established Koto Consumers’ Cooperative in Tokyo
August, To Shanghai, China, for work as chief speaker, National Christian Conference on Christianizing Economics
1928 October, Organized All-Japan Anti･War League
June, Established Nakanogo Credit Cooperative Society, Tokyo
1929 July, Counselor on Social Welfare Work, Tokyo City
1931 January, To China, for lecture tour speaking on religion and economics
February, Established Tokyo Medical Cooperative Hospital
July, To Canada for World Y. M. C. A. Conference
1932 May, Social Insurance Commissioner for Cabinet
1934 February, To Philippines for lecture tour
1935-6 Six months, December to June, Religious lecture tour through
U. S. A. scheduled by National Christian Council of U. S. A.
1936 April, Established Unchusha Inc., for holding Cooperative and
Social Settlements and Churches
November, To Madras, India, for Convention of World Missionary Council
1940 August, Detained by the Gendarmerie of Shibuya, Tokyo, as a leader of Ant-war
1941 April, To U. S. A. as member of Japan N. C. C. Commission of Friendship
December, A whole week of continuous prayer for peace, day and night in
cooperation with a similar movement in U. S. A. led by Dr. E. Stanley Jones
1942 August, Religious lecture tour in Manchuria
1943 May, Taken to Kobe Aioi Police Station, as a member of Anti-war movement
and Christian socialist
November, Examined by the Gendarmerie, as Anti-war leader
1944 October, To China, by invitation of the China National Christian Council
1945 March, Member, Relief Committee, National Social Welfare Department
September, Advisor to Premier Prince Higashikuni
September, Advisor to National Department of Social Welfare
October, Member Research Commission on Diet Organization
November, Organized the Socialist Political Party of Japan Advisor to it
1946 February, National Food Commissioner
March, Member House of Peers appointed by the Emperor
April, President, All-Japan Farmers Union
April, Established The Christian News, all-Japan Christian Weekly paper
May, Member National Board of Directors, and President of Tokyo Branch,
National Relief Commission
June, Organized New Japan for Christ Movement
July, Member, National Survey Commission on Social Insurance
1947 February, Lecture in the Imperial Presence, On Social Welfare Work
1948 June, National Commissioner on Prison Affairs
September, National Social Welfare Commissioner
1949 June, Member National Commission on the Population Problem
August, President Consumers’ Cooperative Union of All-Japan
1949-1950 Travel for religious lecture tour, through Europe and America
1951 January, Vice･President, Union for World Federal Government
1952 November, President, first A-A Congress for World Federation, at Hiroshima
1953 January, Religious lecture tour to Brazil
1954 July, To U.S.A. for second World Church Conference, Evanston, Ills.
November, President, second A-A Congress for World Federation, at Tokyo
1956 October, Educational Committee of Kobe
1957 January, Religious lecture tour to Thailand
October, President, third A-A Congress for World Federation at Kyoto
1958 January, To Malaya, South-eastern Asia Conference of the International
1959 December, Message to Indonesia, “The coming of true peace in Indonesia”
1960 April 23, Kagawa died at thirteen past nine pm at his home in 859-3 chome
Classified List of Books by Kagawa
Religious, Bible, Study, and Religious Education
Dec. 15, 1913 Kirisutodem Ronsoshi, Fukuinshoin Shoten
Quest of the Historical Jesus
Dec. 15, 1921 Iesuno Shukyo to Sono Shinri
The Religion of Jesus and its Truth, Keiseisha Shoten
1931 The Religion of Jesus, Student Christian Movement Press, London
Mar. 1, 1922 Seisho Shakaibaku no Kenkyu
Study in the Sociology of the Bible, Nichiyo Sekaisha
Jul. 18, 1922 Ningen to shite mitaru Shito Pauro, Keiseisha Shoten
The Apostle Paul as a Man
May 15, 1923 Iesu to Jinruiai no Naiyo, Kriseisha Shoten
Jesus and the Inner Meaning of Jove for All Mankaind
Jun. 4, 1923 Iesu no Nichijo Seikatsu, Keiseisha Shoten
The Daily Life of Jesus
1934 Jesus through Japanese Eyes, The Lutterworth Press, London
Jun. 23, 1923 Iesu to Shizen no Mokushi, Keiseisha Shoten
Jesus and the Revelation in Nature
Feb. 25, 1924 Kunan ni Taisuru Taido, Keiseisha Shoten
Attitude toward Affection
Jun. 1, 1924 Ai no Kahaku, Bunka Seikatussha
1929 The Science of Love, John Winston co. USA
[Love the Law of Life]
Jul. 5, 1924 Iesu no Naibu Seikatsu, Keiseisha Shoten
The Inner Life of Jesus
Jan. 20, 1925 Fukuinsho ni Arawaretaru Iesu no Sugata, Keiseisha Shoten
The Portrait of Jesus as in the Gospels
Aug. 18, 1925 Kami tono Taiza, Keiseisha Shoten
Face to Face with God
Jul. 25, 1926 Kami niyoru Kaiho, Eiseisha Shoten
Emancipation through God
Dec. 15, 1926 Nokosaretaru Toge, Nichiyo Sekaisha
1936 The Thorn in the Flesh, Student Christian Movement Press, London
Oct. 1, 1927 Kirisuto Sanjo no Suikun, Nichiyo Sekaisha
Sermon on the Mount
Dec. 25, 1927 Kirisuto Ichidaiki no Hanashi, Nichiyo Sekaisha
Life of Christ
Feb. 20, 1928 Jinrui eno Sengen, Keiseisha Shoten
Manifest to Mankaind
May 10, 1928 Kami niyoru Shinko, Nichiyo Sekaisha
Mar. 25, 1929 Seijo to Kanki, Fukuin Shokan
Purity and Joy
May 1, 1929 Junkyo no Chi wo Uketsugumono, Nichiyo Sekaisha
Successors to the Martyrs
Aug. 25, 1929 Kami niyoru Shinsei, Fukuin Shokan
1931 New Life through God, Fleming H. Levell, NY, London
Jun. 10, 1930 Kami to Seiai no Fukuin, Shokan
Gospel of Divine Love and God
Jun, 15, 1930 Kami ni tsuiteno Meiso, Kyobunkan
Meditation about GOd
Dec. 15, 1930 Kami to ayumu Mainichi, Nichiyo Sekaisha
A Day with God
Jun. 10 1931 Jujika ni tsuiteno Keiso Kyobunkan
1936 Meditation on the Cross, Student Christian Movement Press, London
Oct. 10, 1931 Kami to Eien eno Shibo, Shinseisha
God and the Longing for Eternity
Dec. 15, 1931 Tsukizaru Aburatsubo, Shinseisha
Never Failing Cruse of Oil
Jun. 30, 1932 Kirisuto ni tsuiteno Meiso,
Meditation about Christ
Oct. 21 1932 Kami to Kunan no Kokuhuku, Jitsugyo no Nihonsha
God and Victory over Suffering
Dec. 17, 1932 Kami ni Hizamazuku, Nichiyo Sekaisha
Kneeling before God
Jan. 18, 1933 Kosei Nippon no Seishin teki Kiso, Ichiryusha
Mar. 28, 1934 Seirei ni tsuiteno Meiso, Kyobunkan
Meditation on the Holy Spirit
Christ and Japan, USA
May 5, 1937 Shosei Tokuhon, Jitsugyo no Nihonsha
Book on Life
May 23, 1938 Kami to Shokuzaiai no Kangeki Nichiyo Sekaisha
The Challenge of Redemptive Love
Aug. 15, 1940 Waga Tobyo, Sanseido
How I fought against Sickness
Jun. 25 1941 Byosho o Dojo tosite, hakujujikai
My Sickbed is a School
Aug. 20, 1941 Kami yori no Fukuin, Aiikusha
The Good News from God
Feb. 25 1947 Uchu sozo to Jinsei Saisozo, Kamiizumi Shoten
Creation of the Universe and Life’s Regeneration
Jun.23, 1947 Seimei no Syukyo tositeno Geijutsu, Fukuin Shoten
The Religion of Life and the Art of Death (Evangelism)
1947 Willow and the Bridge, Associated Press, USA
Jun. 20, 1948 Jinsei no To, Kanda Shuppan
Kagawa’s Philosophy of Life
Jul. 7, 1948 Kirisuto no Aidokusho, Keiseisha Shoten
A Favorite Book of Jesus
Aug. 26, 1948 Shizenbi to Tuchi no Syukyo, Shinkosha
Beauty of Nature and Love of the soil
Dec. 31, 1948 Shakai Kakumei to Seishin Kakumei, Seiryusha
Social Revolution andSpiritual Revolution
Jun. 20, 1951 Kirisutokyo Nyumon, Oizumi Shoten
Premier of Christianity
May 30, 1951 Watakushi no Jinseikan, Godo Shoin
My View of Life
Sep. 15, 1951 Eien no Saiseiryoku, Shinyaku Shobo
Jan. 25, 1952 Jinseiku no Kaiketsu, Godo Shoin
Solution the Problem of Suffring
Mar. 30 1952 Seisho no Hanashi, Kaname shobo
Story of the Bible
Sep. 7, 1955 Ten no Kokoro Chi no Kokoro, Jitsugyo no Nihonsha
Mind of Heaven Mind of Earth
Oct. 4, 1955 Iesuden no Oshoiekata, Nichiyo Sekaisha
How to Teach the Life of Jesus
Oct. 27, 1920 Tamashii no Chokoku, Bunkaseikatsu Kenkyukai
Sculpture of the Soul
Jun. 20, 1926 Shukyo Kyoikuno Honshitsu, Shunjusha
Essence of Religious Education
Jul.10, 1930 Shukyo Kyoiku Nyumon, Katei Kagaku Taikei Kankokai
Premer of Religious Education
ul. 1, 1932 Kodomo no Shikarikata to Shikarazuni Sodateru Kuhu,
Kirisutokyo Hoiku Renmei
How to Scold Child and Train without Scolding
Apr. 1, 1933 Shizen to Seikaku, Kirisutokyo Hoiku Renmei
Nature and Character
Feb. 10, 1934 Shukyo Geijutsu ni Motozuku Shukyo Kyoiku, Kirisutokyo Shuppansha
Religious Education Based on Religious Art
Social research and cooperatives
Nov. 15, 1915 Hinmin Shinri no Kenkyu, Keiseisha Shoten
Studies in the Psychology of the Poor
Jun. 5, 1919 Seishin Undo to Shakai Undo Keiseisha Shoten
Spiritual and Social Movements
Oct. 1919 Rodomondai to Kirisutokyo, Fukuin Shoten
Labor problem and Christianity
Nov. 20 1919 Rodosha Suhairon, Fukunaga Shoten
Adoretion of the Laborer
Apr. 9, 1920 Ningenku to Ningen Kenichiku, Keiseisha Shoten
Human Suffering and Human Architecture
Jun. 8, 1920 Shukan Keizai no Genri, Fukunaga Shoten
Princilpes of Subjective Economics
Jan. 20, 1922 Gunbi Teppai ga Dekirumade, Gunbi Shukusho Doshikai
Until the Armament are withdrawn
Nov. 8, 1922 Seizon Kyoso no Tetsugaku, Kaizosha
Phylosophy of the Struggle for Existance
Dec. 10, 1922 Seimei Shukyo to Seimei Geijutsu, Keiseisha Shoten
The Religion of Life and the Art of Life
Apr. 10 1926 Kagawa Toyohiko Daikoenshu, Dainihon Yubenkai
Collection of Lectures by Kagawa
1926 Shakai Byori, Bunka Seikatsu Kyokai
Aug. 1, 1927 Kesho no Shinri, Bunka Seikatsu Kyokai
Psycology of Toilet
Oct. 8, 1928 Isho no Shinri, Bunka Seikatsu Kyokai
Psycology of Dress
Jan. 25, 1933 Noson Shakai Jigyo, Nihon Hyoronnsha
Village Social Work
Dec. 12, 1934 Nippn Dotoku Tokei Yoran, Kaizosha
Moral Stastics of Japan
Jul. 18, 1935 Rittai Nogyo no Riron to Jissen, Nihon Hyoronnsha
Nov. 11, 1935 Senso wa Boshi Shiuruka, Kumo no Hashira
Can We Prevent War
Nov. 19, 1935 Noson Kosei to Seishin Kosei, kyobunkan
Rural Construction and Spiritual Revival
Jun. 28, 1937 Josei Sanbi to Bosei Suhai, Hobun Shoin
Glorification of Women and Motherhood
Aug. 20, 1945 Democracy, Jiji Tsushinsha
Dec. 30, 1945 Shin Nihon no Ishokuju, Asahi Shinbunsha
Jun. 20, 1946 Shin Seikatsu no Dohyo, Kobarutosha
Guide to New Life
Aug. 20, 1947 Uchu no Jinsei, Nihon Seishin kan
The Universe and Life
Feb. 15, 1949 Toyo Shiso no Saiginmi, Itto Shobo
Re-Thinking Oriental Phlosophy
Dec. 20, 1949 Jinkaku Shakia Shugi no Honshitsu, Seiryusha
Principle of Personalistic Socialism
Jan. 30 1957 Jumoku Skunotsu to sono Shukaku, Rinyacho
Tree Crops and
Jun. 25, 1958 Uchu no Mokuteki, Mainichi Shinbunsha
Purpose of Universe
Jun. 10, 1921 Jiyu Kumiairon, Keiseisha Shoten
Jun. 15, 1927 Katei to Shohi Kumiai, Toyo Seimei Hoken co.
Home and Cooperatives
Fiction, poem, juvenile es etc.
Works published in foreign countries
Works on Kagawa